Paul Francis, "A near-term architecture for deploying Pip," IEEE Network, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 30--37, May 1993.
Abstract: Pip is designed to bring new functionality into the Internet immediately and evolve easily to new features over time.
Keywords: Pip; Internet; network protocol; address allocation; IPng; IP
Tony Ballardie, Paul Francis and Jon Crowcroft, "Core based trees (CBT)," in SIGCOMM Symposium on Communications Architectures and Protocols, Sidhu, Deepinder P., ed., (San Francisco, California), pp. 85--95, Sep. 1993.
Abstract: One of the central problems in one-to-many wide-area communications is forming the delivery tree -- the collection of nodes and links that a multicast packet traverses. Significant problems remain to be solved in the area of multicast tree formation, the problem of scaling being paramount among these. In this paper we show how the current IP multicast architecture scales poorly (by scale poorly, we mean consume too much memory, bandwidth, or too many processing resources), and subsequently present a multicast protocol based on a new scalable architecture that is low-cost, relatively simple, and efficient. We also show how this architecture is decoupled from (though dependent on) unicast routing, and is therefore easy to install in an internet that comprises multiple heterogeneous unicast routing algorithms.
Keywords: routing; multicast; core-based trees; spanning trees; IP; Internet
A. J. McAuley and P. Francis, "Fast Routing Table Lookup Using CAMs," in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom), (San Francisco), vol. 3, pp. 1382-1391, March/April 1993.
Abstract: This paper investigates fast routing table lookup techniques, where the table is composed of hierarchical addresses such as those found in a national telephone network. The hierarchical addresses provide important benefits in large networks; but existing fast routing table lookup techniques, based on hardwaresuch as Content Addressable Memory (CAM), work only with flat addresses. We present several fast routing table lookup
Keywords: Hierarchical Network; Routing Table; Hierarchical Routing; Implementation
Paul Francis and R. Govindan, "Flexible Routing and Addressing for a Next Generation IP," in SIGCOMM Symposium on Communications Architectures and Protocols, (London, UK), pp. 116-125, Sep. 1994.
P. Francis and R. Govindan, "Flexible Routing and Addressing for a Next Generation IP," ACM Computer Communication Review, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 116--125, Oct. 1994.
Abstract: Due to a limited address space and poor scaling of backbone routing information, the Internet Protocol (IP) is rapidly reaching the end of its useful lifetime. The Simple Internet Protocol Plus (SIPP), a proposed next generation Internet Protocol, solves these problems with larger internet layer addresses. In addition, SIPP provides a number of advanced routing and addressing capabilities including mobility, extended (variable-length) addressing, provider selection, and certain forms of multicast. These capabilities are all achieved through a single mechanism, a generalization of the IP loose source route. We argue that, for reasons of simplicity and evolvability, a single powerful mechanism to achieve a wide range of routing and addressing functions is preferable to having multiple specific mechanisms, one for each function.
Paul Francis, Sugih Jamin, Vern Paxson, Lixia Zhang, Daniel Gryniewicz and Yixin Jin, "An Architecture for a Global Internet Host Distance Estimation Service," in Proceedings of the Conference on Computer Communications (IEEE Infocom), (New York), Mar. 1999.
Abstract: There is an increasing need for Internet hosts to be able to quickly and efficiently learn the distance, in terms of metrics such as latency or bandwidth, between Internet hosts. For example, to select the nearest of multiple equal-content web servers. This paper explores technical issues related to the creation of a public infrastructure service to provide such information. In so doing, we suggests an architecture, called IDMaps, whereby Internet distance information is distributed over the Internet, using IP multicast groups, in the form of a virtual distance map. Systems listening to the groups can estimate the distance between any pair of IP addresses by running a spanning tree algorithm over the received distance map. We also presents the results of experiments that give preliminary evidence supporting the architecture. This work thus lays the initial foundation for future work in this new area.
Keywords: Internet and experimental systems
P. Francis, "Pip Near-term Architecture," Internet Engineering Task Force, no. 1621, May 1994.
Abstract: Pip is an internet protocol intended as the replacement for IP version 4. Pip is a general purpose internet protocol, designed to evolve to all forseeable internet protocol requirements. This specification describes the routing and addressing architecture for near-term Pip deployment. We say near-term only because Pip is designed with evolution in mind, so other architectures are expected in the future. This document, however, makes no reference to such future architectures.
P. Francis, "Pip Header Processing," Internet Engineering Task Force, no. 1622, May 1994.
Abstract: Pip is an internet protocol intended as the replacement for IP version 4. Pip is a general purpose internet protocol, designed to handle all forseeable internet protocol requirements. This specification defines the Pip header processing for Routers and Hosts.
K. Egevang and P. Francis, "The IP Network Address Translator (NAT)," Internet Engineering Task Force, no. 1631, May 1994.
Abstract: The two most compelling problems facing the IP Internet are IP address depletion and scaling in routing. Long-term and short-term solutions to these problems are being developed. The short-term solution is CIDR (Classless InterDomain Routing). The long-term solutions consist of various proposals for new internet protocols with larger addresses. It is possible that CIDR will not be adequate to maintain the IP Internet until the long-term solutions are in place. This memo proposes another short-term solution, address reuse, that complements CIDR or even makes it unnecessary. The address reuse solution is to place Network Address Translators (NAT) at the borders of stub domains. Each NAT box has a table consisting of pairs of local IP addresses and globally unique addresses. The IP addresses inside the stub domain are not globally unique. They are reused in other domains, thus solving the address depletion problem. The globally unique IP addresses are assigned according to current CIDR address allocation schemes. CIDR solves the scaling problem. The main advantage of NAT is that it can be installed without changes to routers or hosts. This memo presents a preliminary design for NAT, and discusses its pros and cons.