CS 261N: Internet/Network Security. Prerequisite: EE 122 or equivalent, CS 161 or equivalent, basic probability/statistics. (Undergraduates must receive instructor approval.)
This class aims to provide a thorough grounding in network security suitable for those interested in conducting research in the area, as well as students more generally interested in either security or networking. We will also look at broader issues relating to Internet security for which networking plays a role. The syllabus has overlap with portions of the SEC prelim.
Topics include: denial-of-service; capabilities; network intrusion detection; worms; forensics; scanning; traffic analysis / inferring activity; architecture; protocol issues; legality and ethics; web attacks; anonymity; honeypots; botnets; spam; the underground economy; research pitfalls.
The course is taught with an emphasis on seminal papers rather than bleeding-edge for a given topic. It includes a major project that students generally undertake in teams of two.
Three hours of lecture per week. 4 units, due to the significant workload.
A note on ethics: We will be discussing attacks, some of them quite nasty, and also powerful eavesdropping technology. None of this is in any way an invitation to undertake these in any fashion other than with informed consent of all involved parties. If in any context you are uncertain about where to draw the line, come talk with me first.
This lecture schedule may be revised as the course progresses.
|1/21||Overview and Logistics||(none)|
|1/23||Denial-of-Service||Inferring Internet Denial of Service Activity, Moore, Voelker and Savage, USENIX Security 2001||Lecture materials|
|1/28||Traceback||Practical Network Support for IP Traceback, Savage et al., SIGCOMM 2000||Lecture materials|
|1/30||No lecture (IEEE S&P PC Meeting)|
|1/31||PROJECT||Project Initial Thoughts due (evening)|
|2/4||DoS Defense|| SIFF: A Stateless Internet Flow Filter to Mitigate DDoS Flooding Attacks, Yaar, Perrig, and Song, IEEE S&P 2004|| Lecture materials
|2/6||Network Intrusion Detection Systems|| Bro: A System for Detecting Network Intruders in Real-Time, Vern Paxson, Computer Networks, 31(23-24), pp. 2435-2463, 14 Dec. 1999.||Lecture materials|
|2/11||No lecture (NSF Cybersecurity Futures Meeting)|
|2/13||Fundamental NIDS Issues|| Network Intrusion Detection: Evasion, Traffic Normalization, and End-to-End Protocol Semantics, Mark Handley, Christian Kreibich and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2001||Lecture materials|
|2/14||PROJECT||Project Proposal due (evening). Schedule a meeting with me to discuss.|
|2/18||NIDS Evaluation|| Testing Intrusion Detection Systems: A Critique of the 1998 and 1999 DARPA Off-line Intrusion Detection System Evaluation as Performed by Lincoln Laboratory, John McHugh, ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 3(4). November, 2000.||Lecture materials|
|2/20||The Threat of Worms|| How to 0wn the Internet in Your Spare Time, Stuart Staniford, Vern Paxson and Nicholas Weaver, USENIX Security 2002||Lecture materials|
|2/25||Worm Detection/Defense|| Scalability, fidelity, and containment in the Potemkin virtual honeyfarm, Michael Vrable et al, SOSP 2005. Can we contain Internet worms?, Manuel Costa, Jon Crowcroft, Miguel Castro and Antony Rowstron, HotNets III 2004, and its public review (pp. 12-13). ||Lecture materials|
|2/27||Scanning|| Fast Portscan Detection Using Sequential Hypothesis Testing, Jaeyeon Jung, Vern Paxson, Arthur Berger, and Hari Balakrishnan, IEEE S&P 2004||Lecture materials|
|3/4||Inferring Activity|| Timing Analysis of Keystrokes and Timing Attacks on SSH, Dawn Song, David Wagner, Xuqing Tian, USENIX Security 2001||Lecture materials|
|3/6||Forensics||Toward a Framework for Internet Forensic Analysis, Vyas Sekar et al, HotNets 2004, and its public review (pp. 13-14)|
|3/7||PROJECT||Related Work Writeup due (evening)|
|3/11||Securing Protocols|| Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security Considerations, E. Rescorla and B. Korver, RFC 3552, 2003|
|3/13||Securing Protocols, con't||No paper assigned.|
|3/18||Anonymity / Censorship / Surveillance|| Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router, Roger Dingledine, Nick Mathewson, Paul Syverson, USENIX Security 2004|
|3/20||Architecture|| Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise, Martin Casado et al., SIGCOMM 2007|
|4/1||Legality and Ethics||Conducting Cybersecurity Research Legally and Ethically, Aaron Burstein, First USENIX Workshop on Large-scale Exploits and Emergent Threats (LEET '08). Designing and Conducting Phishing Experiments, Peter Finn and Markus Jakobsson, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine, Special Issue on Usability and Security, 2007.|
|4/3||Authentication|| Conditioned-safe Ceremonies and a User Study of an Application to Web Authentication, Chris Karlof, J.D. Tygar, and David Wagner, NDSS 2009|
|4/8||Authentication, con't||No paper assigned.|
|4/10||Web Attacks & Defenses|| Secure Content Sniffing for Web Browsers, or How to Stop Papers from Reviewing Themselves, Adam Barth, Juan Caballero, and Dawn Song, IEEE S&P 2009|
|4/11||PROJECT||Status Report due (evening).|
|4/15||E-Commerce / Botnets|| Your Botnet is My Botnet: Analysis of a Botnet Takeover, Brett Stone-Gross et al, CCS 2009|
|4/17|| Botnets, con't|| Measuring Pay-per-Install: The Commoditization of Malware Distribution, Juan Caballero, Chris Grier, Christian Kreibich and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2011|
|4/22||Spam|| Spamming Botnets: Signatures and Characteristics, Yinglian Xie, Fang Yu, Kannan Achan, Rina Panigrahy, Geoff Hulten, and Ivan Osipkov, SIGCOMM 2008|
|4/24||Spam / Underground Economy||Examining the Impact of Website Take-down on Phishing, Tylor Moore and Richard Clayton, Proc. Anti-Phishing Working Group eCrime Researchers Summit 2007.|
|4/29||Underground Economy, con't|| Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain, Kirill Levchenko et al., IEEE S&P 2011|
|5/13||PROJECT||Project Report due (1PM)|
Homework / Readings:
Link to the homeworks assigned so far.
There is no required textbook. All reading will be from papers. A tentative list of these is available from the syllabus. We will definitely cover most of these topics (and primary papers), but may make some changes over the course of the semester.
Homework for the course primarily consists of writing a reflection upon each paper you read. In general you are only responsible for reading the first paper listed for a given topic. If you want to read and assess a different paper instead, clear your choice with me in advance.
Submit your writeup, via email (plain text preferred), by Monday 9:30AM for papers discussed during a Tuesday lecture, and Wednesday 10AM for papers discussed during a Thursday lecture. These deadlines are sharp.
Typically the assignment will be for you to sketch different facets of the paper, such as:
- What are the paper's main contributions?
- What parts of the paper do you find unclear? (Optional)
- What parts of the paper are questionable? (E.g., methodology, omissions, relevance, presentation.)
- Most homeworks will include an additional specific question (or several) regarding the topic, such as challenging you to come up with and defend a proposed solution.
Your assessment does not need to be particularly formal, but it needs to reflect a thoughtful assessment of the paper. Writeups should generally aim for a total of around 2 pages of thoughtful content. They can be shorter if you write concisely; if longer, that may mean you have trouble trimming your discussion effectively (a skill researchers need to develop!).
It is understandable that you may find parts of some papers baffling or inaccessible. Flag these and don't kill yourself trying to absorb them - same goes for technical fine points - but use prudence in this regard. You should be able to extract a solid amount of technical material from each paper.
In general, I try to provide feedback on homework assignments. However, the size of the class may make it infeasible for me to do so for each student for each assignment. If so, I may limit the feedback I provide for some of your assignments. That said, if there are particular elements of your assessment for which you'd like direct feedback, indicate them in your writeup.
Note, homework assignments are to be done individually. It's fine to discuss the readings with your fellow students or others in order to gain comprehension, but the writeup should reflect your own views and framing.
You should turn in your homework via email and as plain text, and with the word "Homework" in the subject line, lest you risk me overlooking your mail during my relentless email processing crunch. Late homeworks risk losing 50% credit off the top (a bit less if only a few minutes late). Writeups turned in after the corresponding lecture or posting of the corresponding exemplar (see below) will not receive any credit unless you have discussed this with me in advance.
In assessing your overall homework grade, I will skip your 4 lowest-scoring assignments. This means you can omit turning in up to 4 writeups without an overall penalty, and/or you can make up for some late assignments.
If you won't be turning in a given assignment, I'd appreciate a note letting me know by the assignment deadline.
Homework "exemplars": Students can benefit from seeing examples of homework writeups that did particularly well at addressing an assignment. I will make such "exemplars" available a little while after an assignment's due date. Most of the exemplars come from past offerings of the class (made available with the students' permission), though I will also select some of the assignments done this semester. Please do not redistribute exemplars.
A research-oriented project is the most significant element of your effort in the class. You undertake your project in pairs or (with instructor approval) individually. Projects may cover any topic of interest in network security, interpreted broadly (it need not be a topic discussed in class); ties with current research are encouraged. See the project description for details regarding the different elements.
You are encouraged to start thinking of topics of interest early. Be ambitious!
Lecture participation: 10%
Here are the currently planned lecture topics for the course (subject to change). Usually, for each lecture the first paper is required reading and needs to be written up for homework prior to the lecture, while the remaining papers are optional.
Inferring Internet Denial of Service Activity, David Moore, Geoffrey Voelker, and Stefan Savage, USENIX Security 2001
Internet Denial-of-Service Considerations, M. Handley and E. Rescorla, ed., RFC 4732, 2006
Worldwide Infrastructure Security Report, Arbor Networks, 2010 Report (contact me regarding the 2011 report)
An Analysis of Using Reflectors for Distributed Denial-of-Service Attacks, Vern Paxson, Computer Communication Review 31(3), 2001
Denial of Service via Algorithmic Complexity Attacks, Scott Crosby and Dan Wallach, USENIX Security 2003
Practical Network Support for IP Traceback, Stefan Savage, David Wetherall, Anna Karlin and Tom Anderson, SIGCOMM 2000
Single-Packet IP Traceback, Alex Snoeren et al, IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 10(6), 2002
Advanced and Authenticated Marking Schemes for IP Traceback, Dawn Song and Adrian Perrig, INFOCOM 2001
- DoS Defense
SIFF: A Stateless Internet Flow Filter to Mitigate DDoS Flooding Attacks, Abraham Yaar, Adrian Perrig, and Dawn Song, IEEE S&P 2004
PI: A Path Identification Mechanism to Defend against DDoS Attacks, Abraham Yaar, Adrian Perrig and Dawn Song, IEEE S&P 2003
- Network Intrusion Detection Systems
Bro: A System for Detecting Network Intruders in Real-Time, Vern Paxson, Computer Networks, 31(23-24), pp. 2435-2463, 14 Dec. 1999.
Snort - Lightweight Intrusion Detection for Networks, Martin Roesch, LISA '99
Intrusion and intrusion detection, John McHugh, International Journal of Information Security 1(1), 14-35, 2001
NetSTAT: A Network-based Intrusion Detection System, Giovanni Vigna and Richard Kemmerer, Journal of Computer Security 7(1), pp 37-71, 1999
- Fundamental NIDS Issues
Network Intrusion Detection: Evasion, Traffic Normalization, and End-to-End Protocol Semantics, Mark Handley, Christian Kreibich and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2001
Insertion, Evasion, and Denial Of Service: Eluding Network Intrusion Detection, Thomas H. Ptacek and Timothy N. Newsham, Secure Networks techncial report, 1998
Robust TCP Stream Reassembly in the Presence of Adversaries, Sarang Dharmapurikar and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2005
- NIDS Evaluation
Testing Intrusion Detection Systems: A Critique of the 1998 and 1999 DARPA Off-line Intrusion Detection System Evaluation as Performed by Lincoln Laboratory, John McHugh, ACM Transactions on Information and System Security, 3(4). November, 2000.
Outside the Closed World: On Using Machine Learning For Network Intrusion Detection, Robin Sommer and Vern Paxson, IEEE S&P 2010
Prudent Practices for Designing Malware Experiments: Status Quo and Outlook, C. Rossow, C. J. Dietrich, C. Kreibich, C. Grier, V. Paxson, N. Pohlmann, H. Bos, and M. van Steen, IEEE S&P 2012
Strategies for Sound Internet Measurement, Vern Paxson, Proc. ACM IMC 2004
- The Threat of Worms
How to 0wn the Internet in Your Spare Time, Stuart Staniford, Vern Paxson and Nicholas Weaver, USENIX Security 2002
Conficker Working Group: Lessons Learned, Conficker Working Group, January 2011
Cracking Stuxnet, a 21st-century cyber weapon, Ralph Langner, March 2011
With microscope and tweezers: An analysis of the Internet virus of November 1988, Mark Eichin and Jon Rochlis, IEEE S&P 1989
A Worst-Case Worm, Nicholas Weaver and Vern Paxson, Proc. WEIS 2004
- Worm Detection/Defense
Scalability, fidelity, and containment in the Potemkin virtual honeyfarm, Michael Vrable et al, SOSP 2005
A behavioral approach to worm detection, Daniel Ellis, John Aiken, Kira Attwood, Scott Tenaglia, WORM 2004
Design Space and Analysis of Worm Defense Strategies, David Brumley, Li-Hao Liu, Pongsin Poosankam and Dawn Song, ASIACCS'06
Can we contain Internet worms?, Manuel Costa, Jon Crowcroft, Miguel Castro and Antony Rowstron, HotNets III 2004
Fast Portscan Detection Using Sequential Hypothesis Testing, Jaeyeon Jung, Vern Paxson, Arthur Berger, and Hari Balakrishnan, IEEE S&P 2004
The Art of Port Scanning, Fyodor, Phrack Magazine 7(51), 1997
DNS-based Detection of Scanning Worms in an Enterprise Network, David Whyte, Evangelos Kranakis, Paul C. van Oorschot, NDSS 2005
A Brief History of Scanning, Mark Allman, Vern Paxson and Jeff Terrell, Proc. ACM IMC 2007
- Inferring Activity
Timing Analysis of Keystrokes and Timing Attacks on SSH, Dawn Song, David Wagner, Xuqing Tian, USENIX Security 2001
Detecting stepping stones, Yin Zhang and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2000
Statistical Identification of Encrypted Web Browsing Traffic, Qixiang Sun et al, IEEE S&P 2002
BLINC: Multilevel Traffic Classification in the Dark, Thomas Karagiannis, Konstantina Papagiannaki, Michalis Faloutsos, SIGCOMM 2005
Side-Channel Leaks in Web Applications: a Reality Today, a Challenge Tomorrow, Shuo Chen, Rui Wang, XiaoFeng Wang, and Kehuan Zhang, IEEE S&P 2010
Toward a Framework for Internet Forensic Analysis, Vyas Sekar, Yinglian Xie, David A. Maltz, Michael K. Reiter and Hui Zhang, HotNets 2004
Public Review of 'Toward a Framework for Internet Forensic Analysis', Alex Snoeren, HotNets 2004 Public Reviews (pp. 13-14)
Exploiting Underlying Structure for Detailed Reconstruction of an Internet Scale Event, Abhishek Kumar, Vern Paxson and Nicholas Weaver, Proc. ACM IMC, October 2005
Analysis of Credential Stealing Attacks in an Open Networked Environment, A. Sharma, Z. Kalbarczyk, R. Iyer and J. Barlow, Proc. Network and System Security, September 2010
- Securing Protocols
Guidelines for Writing RFC Text on Security Considerations, E. Rescorla and B. Korver, RFC 3552, 2003
A Survey of BGP Security Issues and Solutions, Kevin Butler, Toni Farley, Patrick McDaniel, and Jennifer Rexford, Proc. IEEE 98(1), January 2010
A Fundamental Look at DNSSEC, Deployment, and DNS Security Extensions, Geoff Huston, CircleID, 2006
Security Assessment of the Internet Protocol Version 4, F. Gont, RFC 6274, 2011
- Anonymity / Censorship / Surveillance
Tor: The Second-Generation Onion Router, Roger Dingledine, Nick Mathewson, Paul Syverson, USENIX Security 2004
Telex: Anticensorship in the Network Infrastructure, Eric Wustrow, Scott Wolchok, Ian Goldberg, J. Alex Halderman, USENIX Security 2011
Ethane: Taking Control of the Enterprise, Martin Casado et al, SIGCOMM 2007
SCION: Scalability, Control, and Isolation On Next-Generation Networks, Xin Zhang, Hsu-Chun Hsiao, Geoffrey Hasker, Haowen Chan, Adrian Perrig and David G. Andersen, IEEE S&P 2011
A DoS-limiting network architecture, Xiaowei Yang, David Wetherall, Thomas Anderson, SIGCOMM 2005
Tussle in Cyberspace: Defining Tomorrow's Internet, David D. Clark, John Wroclawski, Karen Sollins and Robert Braden, SIGCOMM 2002
- Legality and Ethics
Conducting Cybersecurity Research Legally and Ethically, Aaron Burstein, LEET 2008
Designing and Conducting Phishing Experiments, Peter Finn and Markus Jakobsson, IEEE Technology and Society Magazine Special Issue on Usability and Security, 2007
The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research, M. Bailey et al., Draft of September 15, 2011
Conditioned-safe Ceremonies and a User Study of an Application to Web Authentication, Chris Karlof, J.D. Tygar, and David Wagner, NDSS 2009
Robust Defenses for Cross-Site Request Forgery, Adam Barth, Collin Jackson, and John C. Mitchell, CCS 2008
- Web Attacks & Defenses
Secure Content Sniffing for Web Browsers, or How to Stop Papers from Reviewing Themselves, Adam Barth, Juan Caballero, and Dawn Song, IEEE S&P 2009
Securing Frame Communication in Browsers, Adam Barth, Collin Jackson, and John C. Mitchell, CACM 52(6), June 2009
BLUEPRINT: Robust Prevention of Cross-site Scripting Attacks for Existing Browsers, Mike Ter Louw and V.N. Venkatakrishnan, IEEE Security S&P 2009
How to Shop for Free Online - Security Analysis of Cashier-as-a-Service Based Web Stores, Rui Wang, Shuo Chen, XiaoFeng Wang, and Shaz Qadeer, IEEE S&P 2011
Clickjacking: Attacks and Defenses, Lin-Shung Huang, Alex Moshchuk, Helen J. Wang, Stuart Schechter and Collin Jackson, IEEE S&P 2012
- E-Commerce / Botnets
Your Botnet is My Botnet: Analysis of a Botnet Takeover, Brett Stone-Gross et al, CCS 2009
Studying Spamming Botnets Using Botlab, John P.John, Alexander Moshchuk, Steven D. Gribble, and Arvind Krishnamurthy, NSDI 2009
A Multifaceted Approach to Understanding the Botnet Phenomenon, Moheeb Abu Rajab, Jay Zarfoss, Fabian Monrose, Andreas Terzis, Proc. ACM IMC 2006
- Botnets, con't
Measuring Pay-per-Install: The Commoditization of Malware Distribution, Juan Caballero, Chris Grier, Christian Kreibich and Vern Paxson, USENIX Security 2011
Not-a-Bot (NAB): Improving Service Availability in the Face of Botnet Attacks, Ramakrishna Gummadi, Hari Balakrishnan, Petros Maniatis and Sylvia Ratnasamy, NSDI 2009
Spamming Botnets: Signatures and Characteristics, Yinglian Xie, Fang Yu, Kannan Achan, Rina Panigrahy, Geoff Hulten, and Ivan Osipkov, SIGCOMM 2008
Design and Evaluation of a Real-Time URL Spam Filtering Service, Kurt Thomas, Chris Grier, Justin Ma, Vern Paxson and Dawn Song, IEEE S&P 2011
Understanding the Network-Level Behavior of Spammers, Anirudh Ramachandran and Nick Feamster, SIGCOMM 2006
Suspended Accounts in Retrospect: An Analysis of Twitter Spam, Kurt Thomas, Chris Grier, Vern Paxson and Dawn Song, Proc. ACM IMC 2011
- Spam / Underground Economy
Examining the Impact of Website Take-down on Phishing, Tylor Moore and Richard Clayton, Proc. Anti-Phishing Working Group eCrime Researchers Summit, 2007
Spamscatter: Characterizing Internet Scam Hosting Infrastructure, David Anderson, Chris Fleizach, Stefan Savage and Geoffrey Voelker, USENIX Security 2007
The Impact of Incentives on Notice and Take-down, Tyler Moore and Richard Clayton, Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS), 2008.
- Underground Economy, con't
Click Trajectories: End-to-End Analysis of the Spam Value Chain, Kirill Levchenko et al., IEEE S&P 2011
Show Me the Money: Characterizing Spam-advertised Revenue, Chris Kanich et al., USENIX Security 2011
Dirty Jobs: The Role of Freelance Labor in Web Service Abuse, Marti Motoyama, Damon McCoy, Kirill Levchenko, Stefan Savage, and Geoffrey M. Voelker, USENIX Security 2011